Posts Tagged ‘inverell’
Discovery and Early Pastoral Settlement of New England.
PIONEERS OF UPPER HUNTER PLAY LEADING PART.
(From a paper written by Mr. J. F. Campbell, L.S., and read before a recent meeting of members of the Royal Australian Historical Society).
The writer commences by touching upon Oxley’s trip to the New England Tableland in the year 1818 and having crossed the southern end, making his way to the coast at Port Macquarie. At this early date, Oxley had good reasons to believe that he was not the first white man to enter the tableland, for from his journal, he reports having encountered natives, who, “from the whole tenor of their behaviour, had previously heard of white people.” By way of confirmation of his surmise, it is significant that upon continuing his journey southerly from Port Macquarie along the coast, he found in Chowder Bay a small boat, half buried in the sand, and the remains of a hut which had evidently been constructed by Europeans; the saw and axe having been employed upon it. From these and other indications, it would appear that adventurous bushmen, free and otherwise, had already explored to some extent the coastal and tableland regions, especially the former, lying far beyond the recognised limits of settlement.
EARLY PASTORAL SETTLEMENT.
When it became known in Britain that rich pasture lands had been discovered beyond the range of mountains which for a quarter of a century had confined settlement to a limited portion of the coastal region, immigration, especially of pastoralists, became more pronounced. Mr. Campbell incidentally refers to the rapid progress of settlement in the Hunter Valley, and quotes from Assistant Surveyor Henry Dangar’s “Hunter River Dictionary and Emigrants’ Guide,” published in 1828, wherein it is set out that “whereas in 1822 a division of country occupying upwards of 150 miles along the river, which in 1822 possessed little more than its aboriginal inhabitants, in 1826-27 more than half a million acres were appropriated and in a forward state of improvement, and carried upwards of 25,000 head of cattle and 80,000 sheep.” In order the more readily to control this rapid advance of pastoral settlement, and to safeguard the lives and the property of settlers generally, it was decided in 1826 to limit the area within which land could be selected and securely held. The northern limit of this area was fixed as from Cape York in a line due west to Wellington Vale, beyond which land was neither sold nor let. In the meantime, however, pastoralists from the Hunter Valley, whose selections had become overstocked, or were drought-stricken, began to steal over the boundary and squat in favorable positions of the Liverpool Plains. Foremost among these was a Mr. Baldwin, who, actually in 1826, with his stock, ventured beyond the limit. His teams were the first to cross the Liverpool Range and to form the northern road over the gap at Murrurundi. No particulars are given respecting this adventurous squatter, but from official papers of that time, mention is made of an enterprising settler, Henry Baldwin, of Wilberforce and Patrick’s Plains, who may have been the pastoralist referred to. By the end of 1831, the so-called waste lands of the colony had become exploited up to the New England Tableland. The trend of this pastoral occupancy was naturally directed along the main creeks and rivers that drain the open valleys of the Namoi basin, but little information, other than traditional, seems to be available adverting to the personnel and doings of the pioneers outside the limits of settlement. In the case, Eales v. Lang, however, the evidence on record reveals something about the early occupancies on the Mukai (Mooki) River, a branch of the Namoi. Donald McLaughlan (MacIntyre?) informed the Court “that from 1825 to 1831 he was in the service of Thomas Potter Macqueen, of Segenhoe (then in England), and was several times on the Mookl looking out for runs.” In his last years of service he formed a station (Breeza) for Macqueen, which station he occupied himself in 1835. This occupancy, under license, was affirmed by the Police Magistrate, Edward Denny Day, then residing at Muswellbrook. In the same case, John Rotton deposed that in September, 1828, he formed a station at Walhalla, on the Mooki River, and remained there two years. Doona run, which was situated between Walhalla and Breeza, was first occupied on behalf of Macqueen, and formed into a station in 1833. Samuel Clift stated in evidence that he entered into possession of Doona in 1837. In 1832 the Australian Agricultural Company’s exchange grant, Warrah, situated on the northern foothills of the Liverpool Range, displaced the early occupiers of that portion of the Liverpool Plains, and the Peel River part of the grant monopolised about a quarter of a million acres on the upper reaches of that tributary of the Namoi. According to the Company’s Commissioner, Sir Edward Parry, who personally inspected the areas in 1832, the squatters who were wholly or in part displaced by the exchange grant of Warrah were as follows: — Messrs. Robertson and Burns (on Mooki), John Blaxland (Kilcoobil), William Lawson and Fitzgerald (Muritloo), Otto Baldwin, William Osborn, John Upton, George and Richard Yeoman, and Patrick Campbell (Yarramanbah), John Onus and Robert Williams (Boorambil), Thomas Parnell, Philip Thorley and William Nowlan (Warrah) and Major Druitt (Phillips Creek). The above occupiers ran 8200 head of stock, mostly cattle, between them. As to the Peel River exchange, the following were affected: — Messrs. George and Andrew Loder (Kuwerhindi, or Quirindi), Brown (Wollomal), William Dangar, Edward Gostwyck, Cory, and Warland (Wollomal and Waldoo). There were 3800 head of stock held on the properties mentioned.
The squatting invasion of New England (according to William Gardner, of Armidale, writing in 1844), commenced in 1832, when Hamilton Collins Sempill, of Beltrees (one l), Hunter River, from his out-station, Ellerstone, crossed the boundary (Liverpool Range) with his stock, and following approximately the Great Dividing Range north-easterly to the Hamilton Valley of Oxley, formed a station in the upper Apsley Valley, which he named Wolka (Walcha), with headquarters on the flat near where Oxley pitched his camp on the evening of September 8, 1818. The precise route is not recorded, but probably he reached the tableland by way of the Nundle spur, a route defined by survey the same year (1832) by H. F. White, Government Surveyor, in conjunction with H. Dangar, the Australian Agricultural Company’s surveyor. About the same time, Edward Gostwyck Cory, a settler, also from the Hunter district (Page’s River and the Patterson, and a squatter on the Page’s River, about where Tamworth is now situated), is said to have passed over the Moonboy (Moonbi) Range, along the route of the Great Northern Road from Tamworth, which route, it is also stated, was previously discovered by him, and, proceeding northerly, he camped for a time on one of the upper tributaries of Carlyle’s Gully. This tributary streamlet still bears the name of Cory’s Camp Creek, and where the camp stood may be seen in the Dog-trap paddock of Rimbanda. A memorial of his ascent to the tableland is also to be seen in the form of a rock at the foot of the second Moonboys, known to the present day as Cory’s Pillow. . . It is not definitely known on what part of the main stream Cory first formed his homestead, but it is surmised that Gostwyck was his headquarters for a time. Later on he established himself at Terrible Vale, about where the present station is situated, while the representative of William Dangar occupied the lower part of the valley with the homestead, Gostwyck, included. In the meantime Colonel Henry Dumaresq had formed a station in the vicinity which he called Saumarez, after the home of his ancestors in the Isle of Jersey. This station appears to have been fully equipped with the necessaries of pastoral life prior to the year 1836, as indicated by the evidence given in the Supreme Court, Sydney, on November 4 of that year in the case, the Crown v. Thomas Walker. In this case, the historic importance of which is obvious, Walker was indicted for the murder of a bushranger near Saumarez, in April, 1836. O’Neil, of the mounted police, “on duty at Colonel Dumaresq’s,” in giving evidence, said: “I heard that bushrangers used to be harboured at Dangar’s station, about five or six miles from Dumaresq’s. The prisoner at the bar was a shepherd there, and he told me that the bushrangers had given him the (stolen) things, and that they were to rob Mr. Cory’s and Mr. Chilcott’s stations the day after. These stations were about twelve miles from Mr. Dangar’s,” etc. Chilcott appears to have been the first occupant of Kentucky run. About this time Cory and Chilcott Had transferred their pre-occupancies. Dr. William Bell Carlyle, about the same time, occupied the valley drained by the creek which bears his name, and Captain William John Dumaresq joined his brother on the north-east. This coterie of adjoining squatters were landed proprietors from the Hunter Valley, where they usually resided. . . Sempill was soon followed by others, including the Allman brothers. The discoveries which led to the pastoral occupation of Cory’s, New England, were continued by Messrs. James and Alexander McDougall, and Alexander Campbell (one of the five overseers who accompanied Peter Mclntyre — he was T. P. Macqueen’s agent — to Australia in 1824), who in March, 1835, started, on an expedition to examine the country now named New England, and at the time unexplored. These explorers evidently followed Oxley ‘s trail to the tableland, their subsequent course being described as due north to Tilbuster, which station was then in the course of formation. From that locality they proceeded easterly, and then northerly, locating suitable positions for stations en route. Some ten years later, Campbell settled on his Macintyre occupancy, which he named Inverell.
In dealing with the pastoral settlement of the western slopes, of the tablelands, which commenced in the year 1836, the writer quotes from ‘The Reminiscences of Mrs. Susan Bundarra Young,” an author whose father, Edward John Clerk, in partnership with John Rankin, settled at Clerkness (now Bundarra). This lady’s story of the incidents and events of her childhood days, in the then Australian bush, although subject in part to correction, is, nevertheless, of historical value, insofar as it portrays the rise and progress of pastoral settlement on the tableland. Her father, who was born in England, was the son of Major Thomas Clerk, of the Indian Army. He came to N.S. Wales, via Tasmania, about the end of 1835, and with John Rankin, purchased Dr. Carlyle’s Invermein or Cresswell property, on Kingdon Ponds, and apparently his New England occupancy, Carlyle’s Gully, as well. They also formed Newstead Station, which upon the dissolution of partnership in 1842, became the occupancy of Rankin, while Clerk retained the original station, Clerkness. (Looking up records in the possession of the ‘Advocate,” we find the names of Messrs. Rankin and Clerk, both of whom were, as far back as 1838, on Satur, and not Invermein, as stated by the writer. Each subscribed a tidy donation towards, the erection of the original St. Luke’s Church, Scone. After the name of each of the two donors, the word “Satur” is plainly written).
(To be continued).
(From our Correspondent.)
Farmers and Settlers’ Association. — A meeting of the Bundarra branch of the F. and S. Association was held to-day, at which it was decided to enter a protest against the amended claims of the Rural Workers’ Union, as being excessive, and also to protest against the repeal of the Conversion Act — a copy of each motion to be forwarded on to the respective authorities through the member for the district.
The chairman stated that he understood a Railway League was being formed in Bundarra to advocate that construction of a line of railway from Inverell to Kentucky, as part of the decentralisation scheme. The meeting expressed itself favorable to the idea, and a motion was carried to the effect that “this branch of the F. and S. Association pledges itself to support any public movement aiming at the construction of a railway through Bundarra.”
Railway League. — Immediately after the close of the Farmers and Settlers’ meeting, a public meeting was held to discuss the advisability of urging the construction of a railway from Inverell to Kentucky (on the Great Northern Line) via Bundarra. Mr. A. McGinty (the convener of the meeting) was appointed to the chair, and in his opening remarks said that for years he had advocated the construction of a railway to Bundarra, unfortunately without success. The recently published report of the Decentralisation Commission, however, went to show that a line through here had been suggested as part of the scheme, and he considered the time opportune for the people affected to make an effort 0n their own behalf. The export of wool, stock, and other products from this district was at the present time very considerable, while the splendid resources of the district fully warranted the recognition in the way claimed. Aided by the output from the neighboring tin and silver fields of Tingha and Howell, he contended, it would be one of the best paying lines in the State; while, on the other hand, the construction of a line from Inverell to Kentucky would provide a shorter and more direct route from the North-West to the proposed port at Salamander Bay than the Inverell-Guyra proposal, while the class of country passed through would be in every way superior. It was not difficult to realise the impetus that would be given to the district by being brought into direct touch with the world’s markets, which in itself would prove a strong incentive for the exploitation of other industries such as dairying, agriculture, etc., for which a large portion of the district is eminently adapted. To hope for success they must take prompt and decided action, and not be backward in asking for what they are justly entitled to. Mr. Donoghue then moved that a Bundarra Railway League be formed, and that the membership, to defray expenses, be fixed at 1/-. This was seconded by Mr. Parsons and carried. Mr. A. McGinty was appointed secretary of the League, and was instructed to collect all possible information of the nature required, which will subsequently be embodied in a petition to be presented to the proper authorities. It was also resolved to solicit the cooperation of Inverell, Uralla, and other centres interested, as well as every land holder along the proposed route, and to invite the assistance of the member for the district, Mr. G. R. W. McDonald, M.L.A. It was decided to hold regular monthly meetings of the League to transact ordinary routine business and report progress. The meeting then adjourned.
(From the Armidale Papers. Aug 20.)
A fatal accident happened to an elderly married woman, named Rebecca Woods, on Friday evening last week. She and her husband were returning from Armidale to Gara station, on which Woods is a shepherd. They were on the road after dark, and in going along a rocky sideling the upper wheel of their dray was raised so high by coming on a rock that the dray turned over. The side of the vehicle fell upon the chest of the unfortunate woman, in whom life, it appeared, remained sufficiently long to enable her to tell her husband that she felt she was dying. Before she was removed from under the dray, which was done by Mr. Thomas Watt and others who were attracted by the cooeying of the old man, she was dead. Woods was fortunate to escape with only a few very severe bruises, and attended his wife’s funeral on Sunday. On Saturday the coroner held an inquest on the body of deceased, when a verdict of accidental death was returned. – In going out to Gara, while crossing a creek, the shafts of Mr. Markham’s buggy separated from the body. The horse went on, leaving Mr. Markham and the buggy surrounded by water. His position, however, not being very perilous, he escaped from it with no greater damage than wetted boots. On the following day, he and Mrs. Markham were both thrown out of the buggy, owing to a bolt coming out, but fortunately a few bruises were the only bad results.
On Thursday we received an intimation that, on the recommendation of Inspector Brown, Sen. Constable Walker, of Glen Innes, bad been promoted to the rank of Sergeant, for his gallant conduct with reference to Thunderbolt.
[The Telegraph says the promotion is to the rank of senior-sergeant]
GLEN INNES. – On Friday and Saturday last the district was visited by some of the heaviest rain known, even during these late months of wet weather. Thunder, lightning, and a high wind came in company with it. It began on Friday early, and lasted without ceasing until Saturday morning. The plains were a sheet of water, the creeks and rivers being higher than known for the last five years – in fact, there was a regular sea. The mailman to Grafton had to return to Glen Innes from the Beardy Plains, they being literally covered with water. Fortunately no damage or loss of life is reported. On Saturday, at ten a.m, I was told the river at Beardy was going down as fast as it had risen – so quickly that the Armidale mail coach came in about half-past four, having had, however, a narrow escape in crossing the Beardy at Stonehenge. Had it not been for the coolness and management of Mr. Leary, the driver, some accident must have happened. Mr. Patter left in the evening, and succeeded, also under great difficulties, in crossing at Yarrowford, on his way to Dundee and Tenterfield – The weather is now fine and frosty. There was a heavy storm on Sunday afternoon, after which it cleared up. – 15th August, 1870. Correspondent.
INVERELL. – On Friday last, at noon, it commenced raining heavily, and towards eight o’clock the River Macintyre was heard to murmur, which, increasing to a turbulent roar, soon became alarming. At two o’clock the water had attained its highest level, being within three feet of overflowing. Fencing alongside the river has in some instances disappeared. We have been informed that serious damage was sustained by the rising of the creek at Newstead, which partly destroyed the washpool, carrying away some of the sheep-washing apparatus. Aug. 15, 1870. – Correspondent.
DUNDEE. – We had a flood here in the River Severn (I believe that is the name of it) on last Friday night. The water rose ten feet, equal to the flood in 1863 – and it has done considerable damage. At Mr. Chappell’s wool scouring establishment, a large boiler was carried away, and has not been found as yet, and at Ranger’s Valley the dam on the river was swept away, while, amongst a great multitude of articles.carried off, were six casks of sheep’s tallow (1½ ton), some of which can be found. If we don’t get a bridge across this river, which is getting deeper every flood, we may expect to hear of the mail coach, horses, &c., being carried off some of those fine days – Correspondent. To the great regret of the residents generally here, the Rev. M. Keogan left Armidale for Grafton on Tuesday. As a number of his friends insisted upon his receiving from them some substantial token of their esteem, they presented him with an elegant gold watch and chain, the watch bearing a suitable inscription.
(Abridged from the Armidale Papers, May 8)
Since our last issue there have been a few light showers at Armidale, but on Saturday there was a pretty heavy fall at the Rocky and other places. The temperature is rather changeable, and hence colds are a common complaint. Express.
We understand that during the past fortnight the Gyra station, formerly in the possession of Mr. G. Allingham, and latterly in the hands of Messrs. Levy, has found a purchaser in the person of Mr. Montagu Marks, who we believe will take up his residence on the run. Rumour speaks of many intended improvements, and among others the erection of a new house for the owner. – Telegraph.
The Athletic Club at Armidale has now the large number of 67 members. – Express.
PASTORAL AND AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION OF NEW ENGLAND. – On Wednesday afternoon a Committee meeting was held, in the New England Hotel, to make arrangements for a ploughing match. There were present Mr. Thomas (in the chair), and Messrs. Markham, Miller, Waters, Fitzgerald, J. Moore, E. Baker, and W. L. Seeley. The committee being unanimously in favour of having a ploughing match, it was decided that it was desirable to invite special contributions towards that object, the present state of the funds of the Society not warranting additional expenditure ; and those of the public favourable to the proposal were requested to forward their contributions to the Treasurer before the 20th instant. – Express.
INVERELL. – On last Saturday night a storm of frightful violence occurred, the thunder literally shaking persons in their beds, accompanied by vivid and blinding sheets of lightning and torrents of rain. A tree was struck by lightning close to the Royal Hotel, and the fragments carried a considerable distance. – May 3. – Cor. of Express.
A serious robbery occurred on Sunday night at Mr. Ince’s Inn. It was discovered about half past ten o’clock that two boxes had been stolen from a bedroom. The police were at once informed of the occurrence, and they commenced to make a search, which resulted in the discovery of one of the boxes at some distance. This box contained clothing, and was all right when found. The other box was not found until next morning, when it was discovered near the creek, at the foot of Taylor-street. The box had been broken open, and £60 in a cash-box, together with some watches and papers, had been abstracted ; some deeds of land, however, were left. – Abridged from the Express, May 8.
CHINESE SWINDLING. – The Telegraph relates that on Saturday, May 1, a most rascally imposition was practised by a Chinaman at the store of Mr. Weston, at Maitland Point, which is managed by a Mrs. Jackson. Several Chinamen have long been in the habit of selling their gold at this store, among others one whose parcels have invariably been found genuine in quality. On the day in question John paid his usual visit, and handed Mrs Jackson a parcel of gold done up in the usual fashion. Taking it for granted that the parcel was genuine as usual, she weighed it, and handed him what she calculated to be the value (£67) with which he left the store. It was afterwards discovered by Mr. Weston that the parcel contained only sand and stones, ingeniously made up. The Chinaman is known to the police, and it is to be hoped he will soon be captured.
GLEN INNES. – We have had another change in the weather. After a few days’ severe frosts rain came on again; since then the weather has been soft and mild. – May 3. – Cor, Express.
INVERELL RACES. – These races came off on April 27 and 28. There was a pretty good attendance, and the races passed off with great spirit. The Maiden Plate of £20 was won by Mr. J. Gillespie’s Ding Dong. Mr. J. Bowman’s Slowboy carried off the Publican’s Purse, of £15. The Ladies’ Purse was won by Mr. F. McInnes’s Jack Spring. This formed the programme for the first day. On the second day the first race was the Town Plate, which was won by Mr. J. Bowman’s Slowboy. The Hurdle Race fell through for want of entrances, and a Hurry Scurry was substituted, which was won by Mr. J. Rose’s Topsy. The same owner’s Ranger took the Hack Selling Stakes, and the Forced Handicap, which was won by Slowboy, concluded the meeting. – Abridged from the Express.
(From the Armidale Express, June 17.)
There has been a good deal of drizzling rain through the week, which has been excellent for farming, but a heavier fall is needed for waterholes. To the N. of Armidale, however, the rain has been far more copious.
A correspondent informs us that on the night of the 6th instant Mr. A. Drummond, blacksmith, of Maryland, was killed. The person blamed for this is stated to be Michael Gallagher, a mail driver, of Tenterfield.
We are informed that if water could be got at Puddledock, a very fair supply of gold might be obtained from it, the innkeeper there having purchased on an average about 10 ozs. a week for some time. There are about twenty-five European miners on the ground, besides six or eight Chinese. Messrs. George Stickler and party expect to wash out about 40 ozs. from a heap of wash dirt of some thirty-five loads. A miner generally known as George the Fiddler also expects to make good wages out of the stuff he has piled up. During the last fortnight ten new men have come to Puddledock, but the miners are pretty much at a stand-still from want of water. There are five sluicing parties in readiness to take advantage of a heavy fall of rain. The want of a post office is very much felt, or of some arrangement by which a mailman could pass through the diggings en route to other places. Five miners rights were taken a few days ago, and more will be applied for as soon as the miners can wash.
(From the Armidale Telegraph, June 17.)
A few young men in Armidale, we understand, are actively engaged in initiatory practice prior to giving an Ethiopian minstrel entertainment, to take place early in July. They propose to make their first debut upon the occasion of a public concert, which the committee of the School of Arts have it in contemplation to give to assist in liquidating the debt remaining upon that institution.
The first snowfall that took place in New England this season occurred on the night of the 8th instant, at Ben Lomond, and extended as far down the road to Falconer. The snow commenced falling early on Thursday evening last, and continued till noon on the following day. Tbe snow was two feet deep on several ridges along the road from Falconer to Glen Innes. The Glen Innes mailman, on coming into Falconer, was powdered as white as a flour sack could have made him. The Gwydir has risen two feet in consequence. The bridge at the Swamp has broken down, and at the Pinch, at this side of the Gyra station, the culvert there has met the same fate.
By a letter, received by a gentleman in town from an Inverell resident, we are informed that Mr. Bawden, the Secretary to the Clarence and New England Steam Navigation Company, left there on the 11th instant, en route for Glen Innes and Tenterfield. Mr. Bawden, we hear, met with considerable success at Inverell and in the neighbourhood.
We have been much struck since residing in Armidale, at the scarcity, as well as the high price, of bricks. If they were more cheap and abundant, we entertain no doubt that wood for constructive purposes would, in many instances, be superseded by bricks, seeing that the latter are not only more lasting, but offer a more effectual safeguard against fire. From all we learn there is no scarcity of good clay in the vicinity of the town, which, if manufactured into really good bricks at a moderate price, we believe the demand for them would be very considerable, thus giving employment to a large number of hands. The field is a large one, for some enterprising spirit amongst us, and presents many attractions as a profitable sphere of action.
The Chief Commissioner for Railways, examined by the Decentralisation Commission, says the best route for railway communication between the North-West and a port north of Trial Bay would be from Inverell through Guyra and Guy Fawkes, to join at Dorrigo railway, which has already been sanctioned between Dorrigo and Glenreagh; and that the proposed line from the neighborhood of Walcha to Woodside on the North Coast line would give the best communication with Port Stephens.
(From the Armidale papers, Sept. 4.) The weather at Armidale has been dry during the past week, with frosts every morning. The grass is springing, but it needs more rain From the imperfect manner in which many fruit trees are blossoming, a good crop of fruit is scarcely expected. — Express.
Shearing (according to the Telegraph) is to commence at Gyra (the station of Mr. Montague Marks) on October 1, and at Gostwyck shortly afterwards. Shearers were plentiful. — A growing desire on the part of squatters was recorded that a sheep-inspector should be appointed for New England.
John Muldoon, aged l8 months, son of Arthur Muldoon, a free selector at Baker’s Creek, was unfortunately burned to death on Thursday, during a brief absence of the mother. An inquest was held in Armidale yesterday, when a verdict of accidental death was returned. — Express.
Two Cornish well-sinkers have been very successful in procuring water in Armidale. — Telegraph.
Mr. Black, formerly Commissioner of Crown Lands, has been lecturing at Walcha, with a view to cause action in the matter of having a road opened between the Manning and Armidale, as an outlet for produce.
The Express publishes a telegram from the Colonial Secretary, received in Armidale on Wednesday, announcing that Lord Belmore will pass through New England on his way from Brisbane. A public meeting was to be held, to make arrangements for his Excellency’s reception.
INVERELL. — A man named Donald Ross, at the police court, Inverell, was fined £10, with the alternative of three months’ imprisonment, for illegally riding a horse.
A lad of fourteen, named James Leslie, was sentenced to be imprisoned for one month, for killing a young calf with a tomahawk. The boy, it appeared, was so ignorant that he could not repeat a prayer.
A barn belonging to a farmer named Phillip Wells was burned to the ground on the 28th August, and three or four hundred bushels of corn were destroyed.
On the 30th an old shepherd, named Donald Duff, was found dead on the Byron run.
A small party were prospecting at Middle Creek for precious stones; they had found some stones which resembled rubies. — Cor. Express.